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Bonding and antibonding π molecular orbitals:~ 24 ~Solomons/Solo Ch01Figure 1.24 How two isolated carbon p orbitals combine to form two π (pi) molecular orbitals. The higher energy antibonding MO contains an additional node.
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Figure 1.23 (a) A wedge-dashed wedge formula for the sigma bonds in ethane and a schematic depiction of the overlapping of adjacent p orbitals that form the π bond. The blue and red colors indicate opposite phase signs in each lobe of the π molecular orbital.
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Figure 1.20 A process for obtaining sp2-hybridized carbon atoms.1. Figure 1.2 A model for the bonding molecular orbitals of ethane formed from ~ 23 ~Solomons/Solo Ch01 two sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms.3. Pi (π) bond: 1) The parallel p orbitals overlap above and below the plane of the σ framework.
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(Both orbitals have a node in the plane containing the C and H atoms.)1) The bonding π orbital is the lower energy orbital and contains both π electrons (with opposite spins) in the ground state of the molecule.2) The antibonding π∗ orbital is of higher energy, and it is not occupied by electrons when the molecule is in the ground state.π* MO Antibonding Bonding E n ergy1.13A. There is a large energy barrier to rotation associated with groups joined by a double bond.1) Maximum overlap between the p orbitals of a π bond occurs when the axes of the ~ 25 ~Solomons/Solo Ch01 p orbitals are exactly parallel ⇒ Rotation one carbon of the double bond 90° breaks the π bond.2) The strength of the π bond is 264 KJ mol–1 (63.1 Kcal mol–1)⇒ the rotation barrier of double bond.
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